Are you looking forward to starting your first fish aquarium? Well, you might have come across the word or heard something to relate with the ‘fish tank nitrogen cycle.’ It’s followed by a plethora of scientific graphs and terms, which seem a bit overwhelming in most scenarios.
That’s why I am here to help. This article will detail the nitrogen cycle in a fish tank and how to cycle a fish tank highlighting all the basic processes and compounds that comprise this cycle. So, without further ado, let’s get cracking.
The organic Nitrogen Cycle is a comprehensive cycle involving Nitrogen moving from the air to the plant, the animal, the bacteria, and back to the atmosphere- such a cycle requires no human interference.
However, in a fish aquarium, this Nitrogen process is lesser a cycle and more a biochemical process, which incorporates the continuous chemical breakdown of nitrogenous compounds, starting with ammonia, then nitrite, before forming nitrates.
Since nitrates are produced last, they are mainly absorbed by the aquarium plants or eliminated from the aquarium’s water, using other means.
This cycle explains how organic wastes in the water are processed in the natural environs. Even if you possess a closed aquarium, this process should be initiated and promoted by the potterer.
The prevalent biological toxins present in an aquarium are Nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia. Therefore, the nitrogen cycle should operate efficiently to metamorphose and reduce all of these byproduct wastes in the water.
Aquarium wastes decompose to produce ammonia, which is acutely toxic. The nitrogen cycle converts ammonia to nitrates through a multistage reaction. Nitrate, on the other hand, is much less harmful than ammonia and nitrite. So the nitrogen cycle is crucial.
In a functional aquarium, this process is well-established with time. Often, it takes about three months before the new aquarium can convert the waste byproducts into nitrates fully.
Undoubtfully, this toxic environment is extensively harmful to your fish, meaning that most fish will not survive without it, and those who will are quite vulnerable to illnesses and won’t live long.
The process of replenishing a new aquarium gradually over time with smaller, younger fish or starter fish allows the Nitrogen converting bacteria to grow and regulate the load of waste products present in water. Even though this Nitrogen Cycle can work without putting in any individual effort, it doesn’t guarantee that the new fish will survive inside.
There are several ways to cycle fish, but before we get to that, let’s find out about Ammonia, Nitrite, and Nitrate’s role across different stages in this cycle.
In normal circumstances, the ammonia is colorless and has a pungent smell that’s quite toxic. Bacteria instantly metamorphose fish proteins and urea to ammonia. But once the ammonia levels go way above, either there are too many fish in that fish tank, or fish present are being overfed.
Nevertheless, in a balanced aquarium, the bacteria, also known as ‘nitrogen-fixing bacteria,’ proceed to oxidize the ammonia and convert it into nitrite.
Nitrite causes the most fatalities to fish in an aquarium; hence these compounds should be effectively left out of the Nitrogen Cycle. Nitrites develop in the fish tank as a result of incomplete oxidation of the ammonium ions.
The nitrite-converting bacteria proceed to convert these nitrite compounds to Nitrate, thus making it generally harmless.
Nitrate is the final product in the oxidation of ammonia compounds, i.e., foodstuffs, urine, excretes, remains of snails, plant leaves, and other dead fish. In a fish tank, the nitrates produced mainly result from ammonium compounds and animal proteins’ disintegration.
Most tropical freshwater fish and other animals present in an aquarium are highly-tolerant to even large nitrate quantities. But as with nitrite, to avoid excessive build-up of nitrates, you should maintain a small animal population and feed lightly.
All new fish tanks must undergo the highly-involving nitrogen cycle. Although there is no means through which you can immediately establish a required and balanced nitrogen cycle in an aquarium, there are several ways to do so, but all will need time.
Typically, some are easy than others, but based on our research and extensive experience in running multiple aquariums, the following methods have served us well.
This method is more familiar with both beginners and experienced fish keepers. Many fish keepers will not observe an empty aquarium for weeks or even months, hoping that some useful bacteria are thriving. To help you get started, this is what you should do:
When starting a new fish tank, begin with a limited fish population. The most recommended option is stoking a single fish per 10-gallon water tank. Check your stocking list, and select only the strongest and lasting species among them.
Begin by feeding your fish sparingly and slowly raising this amount over the coming four to six weeks. The useful bacteria present will feed on the fish excretes.
But because there are no many bacteria present during the startup, you don’t wish to overfeed your animals to the point where there aren’t enough bacteria to handle the waste load fully.
You can significantly speed up the nitrogen cycling process by adding some useful bacteria at the beginning.
Preferably, if you already have an existing fish tank or know somebody who does, simply transfer some substrate or filter media from the established aquarium to this new one (more on this later in the article).
Besides, you can purchase live nitrifying bacteria to help kickstart your cycle.
Using a water test kit, you can check the water quality in your fish tank to ensure the animals are healthy and safe.
The cycle is deemed complete once you can comfortably feed your fish an equal amount for a week, and the nitrite and ammonia levels remain 0 mg/l, whereas nitrate levels stay above 0 mg/l.
You can gradually start adding some fish at this juncture, allowing some wait time to make sure this useful bacterium balances the increased waste load.
Note that even though Nitrate is much safer for the fish, if its concentration goes past 40 mg/l, it should signal you to perform a water change to reduce this nitrate levels.
This method of cycling has gathered popularity across the internet as it is beginner-friendly and relatively harmless. The advantage is that you don’t need fish, to begin with. But ensure you understand what you are doing so that you don’t struggle with completing the final process.
Timing is highly crucial when performing fish-less cycling. If you are purchasing your fish online, not local stores, contact your suppliers beforehand to determine when your fish are set to arrive.
Place the fish food or any suitable ammonia source in an empty fish tank to allow bacteria growth. Continually add this ammonia sources to ensure your bacteria won’t die from lacking food. Invest in a water testing kit to monitor the levels of nitrites, ammonia, and water.
After your filter has been cycled, you must add some fish to maintain a functional system gradually. Like other bacteria-introducing methods, Fish-less cycling won’t cycle your aquarium immediately- it must take some time.
If you’re comfortable with this cycling process, ensure you seed your aquarium with Nitrogen converting bacteria using bacteria additives or filter media to make it all easy for you.
This cycling method is loved by many because you can effectively convert your aquarium into a natural ecosystem, both visually and biologically.
Instead of setting up an aquarium with little or no fish, you instantly add some live aquarium plants. The prime focus is on growing them using good fertilizers, substrate, and under good lighting.
Some microbiologists even claim that water plants effectively take in much more nitrogen waste compared to bacteria. Besides, the roots and leaves also contribute some useful bacteria.
Nonetheless, you should add even more using the tips highlighted in the previous section.
Once these plants start showing new growth, your cycle is done. Your plants are effectively taking in nitrates and ammonia and metamorphosing them into new roots and leaves.
Get a water test kit to ensure that nitrites and ammonia stay at 0 mg/l, whereas nitrates are not anywhere above 40 mg/l.
Slowly add some fish, ensuring you feed them lightly.
To establish an efficient nitrogen cycling process in your fish tank, it might take you some time. Fortunately, there are some methods through which you can achieve fast cycling. These include using:
Also referred to as seeding your fish tank, investing in pre-established media from an existing system is the conventional way of kickstarting your beneficial bacteria in a new fish tank.
Use some fraction of filter media from another aquarium or gravel-cup from a stable and place it into your filter.
The transfer between different systems should occur as fast as possible to prevent the bacteria from drying or dying. Except if you have much filter media to spare, this method shortens your cycling process and allows your filter to attain full potential.
All in all, not all bacteria will effectively function across different aquariums. Avoid seeding material from a tank, which has significantly varying water parameters from your new tank.
Check your water’s kH and pH to ensure they fall in the same range. Like most fish, bacteria won’t support dramatic changes in water chemistry.
Every fish will introduce some form of bacteria into the tank. The bacterium you begin with may not be those you finalize with. Closely monitor your nitrogen parameters to ensure everything is running smoothly.
Also, never seed from an aquarium showing any signs of infections. Although most pathogens solely reside in the fish, chances are there may be some lurking in that filter.
Another way to speed up the nitrogen-cycling process is by placing the filter you are set to use in a new tank that’s already been established and allow it to run shoulder to shoulder with the established filtration system.
This method requires some advanced personal planning. Like others explained above, ensure your systems have kindred chemistry patterns and are healthy enough. In 4-6 weeks, you can transfer the matured filter to your new system.
Before going ahead, ensure you have everything set, and remember to add some little fish to the filter- it provides the needed food (ammonia).
Most fish stores offer bottles of bacteria colonies to jump-start your filter instantaneously. Regardless of whether what’s in that bottle is beneficial, the chances are that this bacterium might not be what your fish needs.
Save yourself the cash and spend some time setting up a fully-effective filter. Steer clear of the lure of immediate gratification and save your fish in the long run.
To sum up, this article has comprehensively discussed all you need to know on how to cycle a fish tank. By cycling your aquarium, you are giving your fish the best environs for not only survival but also living happily and healthy.
Always bear in mind that once kickstarted, the nitrogen cycle runs consistently throughout your fish tank. Regardless of your preferred cycling method, it would be best you understood; no trick method can instantly establish fully-functional bacterial colonies.
You need to have a good plan and invest time in it. Check your water chemistry often until you have a stabilized and fully-cycled system. We recommend that you incorporate a testing kit as part of your wholesome maintenance routine.
Hello, everyone! Welcome to my aquarium blog. Fishkeeping is my passion, and I started this fascinating hobby back in 2006. Besides my engineering profession, I deeply studied many fishkeeping topics since I started building my home aquarium. I researched effective aquarium filtration and lighting of planted aquariums. I am keeping 20+ species of freshwater and saltwater fish as my aquatic pet collection. I successfully experimented with a complex ecosystem inside the aquarium, biotope aquariums, aquaponics, etc. I would love to share some learnings from my hands-on experience of the last 14 years. Hopefully, my sharing will be somewhat helpful to make your aquarium journey awesome!
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