As a new aquarium owner, you’ll spend a lot of time researching and investigating which fish and how many fish per gallon will be ideal for your tank.
Overstocking is dangerous, and very often beginner aquarists make that mistake. The common tendency is to add more fish, ultimately ending up in a most unwanted outcome, dying fish.
But how can you figure out how many fish you can keep safely? There are some rules and could be a yardstick for you to determine the stocking quantity. The truth is that there are many factors to consider.
You have to consider species types like behavior and sociability, adult size; feeding requirements; filtration (or lack thereof), and finally, the actual volume of their home.
Rules Are Usually Followed To Find ‘How Many Fish Per Gallon
One Inch Per Gallon
One of the widely accepted and overly followed rules is the “one inch per gallon.” This means you can stock one-inch fish for every gallon. Alternatively, the total length of the fish in inches should not exceed the total water volume. So, for example, you can stock 10 one-inch fish in a 10-gallon aquarium or any number of fishes, but the total length is 10 inches or less.
It’s not a totally flawed rule, but it is more of a generic one, to be honest. It does not take into account the modern filtration system, planted aquariums, fish types, and others. As a rough estimate, you can still use this rule, but I would suggest you be more specific, and that will be better.
Every aquarium setup is different, and also not all fish species are the same. For example, you may have a good aquarium filter in place to handle the bioloads or a planted aquarium where plants work as an added filter. On the contrary, in a poorly filtered aquarium, one inch per gallon could be too much.
Fish also vary in shape and size. Stocking an aquarium with slender-shaped fish like Zebra Danios or Neon Tetras is not the same as keeping full-bodied Goldfish or Cichlids. Also, all the fish do not produce the same amount of waste; some are messier than others. Larger fish comparatively made more waste and hence required much water volume.
Another common mistake people make is about the size of the fish. They calculate according to the fish size when they make their purchase. However, forget the fact that fish will grow in the aquarium water if everything goes well and eventually reach their adult size. Today’s one-inch Goldfish can grow as long as 6 inches when it is fully grown.
Also, not to be mentioned, sometimes it’s easy to make errors while calculating the tank water volume. For example, a 10-gallon size aquarium usually does not hold 10-gallon of water. Because in an aquarium substrate, decors, rocks, and plants occupy some space.
In addition, you have to keep water level 2-3 inches below the top to prevent fish from jumping out of the tank. So, in general, water volume is 10 to 15% lower than the specified aquarium size.
Overall, the ‘one inch per gallon rule is a reasonable guideline to follow, But it has its own limitations. For large fish like Goldfish, Cichlids, one inch per two gallons could be a good alternative.
Surface Area Rule
The more surface area that the water has, the better suited it is to sustain life. Oxygen exchange occurs where air and water meet on any given body of still or running liquid. Therefore, the increased oxygen level in your aquarium will significantly benefit your fish!
The wider tank has relatively more surface area than the tall and thin tank, Although they hold the same amount of water. You can calculate the surface area to determine how many fish you can stock safely. You arrive at that number by multiplying the width of its tank and length, which is equal to its surface area (width x length = surface area).
For example, if a 10-inch wide tank is 12 inches long, the total would be 120 square inches. The rule is, to stock one-inch fish in every 12 square inches. If you’re using this rule, you’ll end up stocking 10 one-inch size fish, or the total length of the fish not exceeding 10 inches.
Although the surface area rule considers different shapes of the fish tank, it does not consider the shape and size of the fish. It’s important to remember that the size of fish varies greatly from one type of species to another, and some are much more physically imposing than others.
It’s well applicable for slender-bodied fish. But for example, if you want a tank with wide-bodied fish like Goldfish, Cichlid, or Plecos, it will be wiser to change the rule a bit. You can stock one inch of fish for every twenty inches of surface area.
The rule may not be perfect, but using this surface area rule will benefit you to determine stocking amounts for unusually shaped aquariums.
How To Determine The Right Stocking Level
When stocking your tank, it’s important to be mindful of the size. Now you realize how many calculations go into buying and caring for an aquarium- from small Goldfish to larger Oscars/Angelfish!
Below are some considerations to find how many fish per gallon will be ideal to stock in your aquarium.
Fish Shapes And Sizes
Many fish keepers don’t have clear ideas about the age of their fish and how much they can grow. However, you should consider actual adult size during calculation. In addition, the amount of space taken up also depends upon the shapes and geometry of a fish. For example, a rounder, fatter variety will take up more room than its slim counterpart. Even if they are both tall, one might be narrow while another is wider.
As you are keeping fish, it’s essential to know that as the length of the fish increases, so does their body volume exponentially. Such as a two-inch-long goldfish may have four times more waste released into the water than one-inch-long Goldfish because they take in food and expel wastes at different rates.
Therefore, before stocking, it’s a good idea to learn about the fish you want to keep. If you don’t know much about the aquarium fish species, you can read the info and care guide sections to learn about different types of fish and care guides. If you are a beginner, also know about the fish that a beginner should avoid.
Not All Fish Produce The Same Amount Of Waste
In terms of producing waste, all fish species of the same size don’t make the same amount of poop! Some are messy and produce a lot of garbage, and some are comparatively easy on managing waste. With so many fish species to choose from, it can be challenging for new aquarium owners to know which will best fit their needs.
Little fish such as Danios and Tetras produce low amounts of waste – but big eaters like Goldfish will create more. That means you’ll need to make sure your tank has plenty of beneficial bacteria to break down the extra waste that these bigger, messier types require!
You may also need an oversized aquarium filter and ways to oxygenate the fish tank to accommodate those messier fish if you stock following any of the above rules. So, you had better customize the rules as per fish species.
The Shape Of Your Tank
The more surface area in contact with oxygen-rich air means a healthier environment for your fish due to increased opportunities for oxygen exchange between water and air. For instance, the taller tank may be eye-catching but has less surface area than a wider tank of the same volume. This could lead to a low oxygen condition in an overcrowded aquarium.
Most fish require lateral space to swim, which is restricted in a taller tank. A taller tank is rather tricky to clean, especially if you can’t reach the bottom with your hand. Unusually shaped aquariums usually have more corners where algae and debris build-up.
Therefore, if you have taller or unusually shaped (hexagonal, round) aquariums, it’s better to limit the fish population so that they can safely live there without overcrowding. Never forget to calculate the proper water volume, excluding substrates, decorations, rocks, etc.
Fish Have Different Activity And Aggression Levels
Fish behavior is another important consideration. Some fish prefer plenty of rooms because they are active and playful. In contrast, others are sluggish and inactive, like Corydoras and Clownfish.
Aggressiveness also dramatically impacts calculating how many fish per gallon is ideal. For a territorial fish like Betta, you can’t keep two male counterparts at a time in a tank. But you can put more than one female Betta with care.
Betta fish can also live in a community tank. But careful selection of fish species is important, meaning you have to find compatible fish to live peacefully with Betta fish.
Schooling fish are a little different in nature; they are peaceful and like to stay in a group of six or more. If you want schooling fish, you can actually keep more than one-inch fish per gallon. Only if you have a decent filtration system and as long as you are not overfeeding.
This means that 10 Platies or 15 Zebra Danios would be right at carrying capacity for a 10-gallon tank.
Be Careful How Quickly You Add Your Fish
Even if you listen to all the advice and do your homework correctly, you can still go wrong if your tank isn’t cycled and you add all the fish at a time. So make sure before introducing fish in your tank, that it is properly cycled.
Even though the tank is already cycled, do not put all the fish at the same time. Not more than 25% of the total volume of fish should be introduced at one time. Then, increase the number gradually after testing all the water parameters in the safe zone.
Fish waste and toxic chemicals are eliminated by the colony of beneficial bacteria. However, those need time to adjust to the changing bio-load. Therefore, the addition of all fishes at the same time can shift the balance, and your fish may die.
Filtration Does Matter
Yes, filtration does matter! Filtration plays a significant role in how many fish per gallon your aquarium can support. A good aquarium filter will keep your water clean and healthy for your fish to swim around.
Therefore, buying a reliable and decent aquarium filter is essential. Ensure the filter can circulate water four times higher than the tank water volume through the filter media.
For example, if you have a 20-gallon tank, your filter should generate at least 80 gallons per hour flow rate. If you have doubts, go higher because there is no danger of over-filtering the water, although it may cost you a few more bucks.
So, how many fish per gallon is optimum for you? Do your research and make an informed decision because the right fish density depends on many factors.
Keep in mind, that a little bit of breathing room goes a long way to maintaining optimal water quality and healthy, stress-free fish! A much better rule is to always stay on the conservative side and never try for the maximum capacity.
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