An ideal aquarium should be established in a way so that you are placing a small piece of an underwater world beside you. It would be best if you made a living home for your aquatic friends that resemble their natural habitat conditions.
Aquarium substrate plays a vital role in bringing natural flavors in aquariums for making it an ideal living place for aquatic plants and animals. Most importantly, it works as a surface for beneficial bacteria to grow.
In this article, we’ll talk about the details of aquarium substrates and provide reviews for some of them available in the market so that you can comfortably find the best substrates for planted tanks and use them in your aquarium.
If you are going to start a new fish tank, you should use the aquarium substrate to cover the tank bottom because it is beneficial. Let’s have a look at reasons why substrates are useful to have in your aquariums.
Aquarium substrates provide a natural home for beneficial bacteria that plays a vital role in establishing the nitrogen cycle. Without an ideal gravel/sand bed, beneficial bacteria cannot colonize and grow enough to keep the internal environment healthy for living species.
Once a complete nitrogen cycle is established, it provides a great benefit of biological filtration, eliminating fish wastes, food leftovers, and plant debris. A fish tank with bare bottom suffers from excessive ammonia buildup and requires more frequent cleaning.
If you want to have live plants in your aquarium, then a suitable substrate is a must! A perfect substrate for plants is the one that can root the plants well and ensure their proper nutrition. Among suitable substrate for planted tanks, the common types are laterite and vermiculite, as they can store proper nutrients for aquatic plants.
To make the substrate perfect for plants, you have to choose suitable substrate materials that can combine gravels and sands. The depth of the bottom layer for planted tanks is another vital consideration. Many plants have roots that go deep, so the amount of substrate in your aquarium will depend on what type of plants you are going to have.
The substrate can create a pleasing home environment for your aquatic friends. Some fishes are bottom dwellers, they love to scavenge, some others prefer to burrow for hiding, and a substrate creates all those opportunities.
Moreover, the substrate provides a safe place for hiding fish-eggs; otherwise, they can be food for hungry fishes. Overall a sandy bottom layer can please you fishes by giving them an impression of a natural pool.
The visible impact of having substrates is it will decorate your aquarium and enhance the glamour. Both artificial and living plants that decorate aquariums require a substrate for rooting.
In a tank of naked bottom, wastes are easily visible. The substrate hides undesirable materials and shows off only what you wish to see – fish and decors. The substrate with a combination of plants rocks driftwood and other decors helps create a visual landscape that can please eyes.
Gravel is the top choice and most common aquarium substrate type. Gravels with different sizes, shapes, and colors are available in the market. Aquarium owners usually choose standard gravels for their aquariums as substrate, because it is relatively easy to clean and requires less cleaning.
Gravel as a substrate is useable for all aquariums and suitable for all kinds of aquatic species. You can use gravel substrate for freshwater, planted, and saltwater aquariums. Gravels are not easy to breakdown or soften, thus easy to handle. Gravel can beautify your aquarium perfectly, adding natural flavors.
The second popular choice for aquarium substrate is sand. If you keep bottom-dweller fish like Kuhli loach, it is better to use sand as a substrate. These species enjoy burrowing the sand layer, and a sand substrate would be the perfect playground for them.
Clay type sands are suitable for planted aquariums. There are many substrates in the market labeled for planted aquariums (usually laterite or vermiculite) for growing live plants. Those are nothing but particular types of sand and clay mixtures.
Sometimes people use a combination of gravel and sand, keeping gravel at the upper layer. Cleaning the sand substrate is a little tricky task. However, we don’t discourage beginners from having sand as an aquarium substrate; only they have to gather some knowledge of maintaining it.
Larger river rocks are also useable as substrates. They are commonly known as pebbles. It is the largest-sized substrate for aquarium use. Not only the river rocks, quartz, glass, or even colored plastics can also be in this category.
The pebbles are smooth and large. If you have egg scattering fishes and wish to see little fellows coming out of the eggs, you must provide suitable chinks where eggs stay hidden, and large rocks can create such spaces. For small Betta fish tanks, people use pebbles as they give convenience for maintenance.
But on the other hand, fish wastes and food leftovers can be accumulated within gaps and create a toxic environment. So if you use large pebbles as the aquarium substrate, it may require frequent cleaning. Not suitable for use in planted aquariums.
Sometimes people use crushed coral as the substrate. It can raise the pH and beneficial for improving the buffering capacity of water. Some cichlids prefer alkaline water, and if you keep fishes like them, the crushed coral substrate will be an excellent choice. The other benefit of using crushed coral is, it looks beautiful and can enhance the overall prettiness of an aquarium.
Flourite Black is a very popular unique porous clay gravel for planted aquarium. It is a perfect substrate indeed for plant growth and we kept this product at the top of our list of the best substrate for planted tanks.
The manufacturer recommends using it alone as an integral substrate bed to get the best result. Still, you can use it mixing with other gravels also.
There is no harmful chemical present with this substrate that can alter the water quality. This clay gravel is perfect for aquarium life.
Though pre-washed, as it is a natural product, it can become dusty during shipment. So the suppliers suggest rinsing before you put it in the aquarium. During water filling, you may find cloudy water.
So place a bowl inside the aquarium and pour water on it instead of flowing directly on the substrate bed. In this way, water will slowly overflow the container to avoid disturbing the substrate bed. Initial cloudiness is usual.
This product is prevalent in aquarium sand with an excellent amazon review rating. We picked this substrate in the second of our list based on customer’s feedback.
Plants can grow ideally in this sand and can create a small piece of the natural underwater world in your aquarium. They use no additional dyes or harmful chemicals that can affect the pH of aquarium water.
The grain size is perfect to resist any waste accumulation within the substrate bed, thus ensures easy cleaning. The sand is soft and ideal for bottom-dwellers to provide them a pleasing playground.
This product achieved a good reputation as a planted tank substrate. Like most other substrates, this UP AQUA sand does not require rinsing before putting it in the aquarium.
The manufacturer formulated this sand, especially for aquatic plant growth. It maintains pH at 6.5, which is ideal for this purpose.
Most of the users provided feedback that their aquatic plants thrived using this sand as the substrate. With no hesitation, we considered this product in our list of the best substrate for planted tanks.
Seachem Aquarium Substrate is a well-known popular aquarium substrate with good quality. This specific product is red and specially designed for plant growth. Aquatic plants can root this substrate entirely and get their proper nutrition.
It is better to use this product alone as an integral substrate bed, but this is not a hard and fast requirement; you can mix it with gravel if it is suitable. No harmful chemical or dye is present with it that can hamper water quality.
The best part we like about this product is, it does not require replacement, which means you can use it throughout the entire aquarium life!
Eco-Complete planted aquarium substrate can outperform the competitors and a prevalent one. This unique substrate contains iron, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sulfur, and over 25 other essential elements for aquatic plant nutrition. This soil is comparable with fertile basaltic volcanic soil of Hawaii, Bali, and Costa Rica, famous for luxuriant plant growth.
Mineralogically and biologically, this substrate is perfect for the growth of your desired aquatic plants and not for nuisance algae. They don’t use any chemicals and dyes, which can hamper the water quality.
Highly porous spherical grains are the suitable home of beneficial bacteria and promote their growth to establish a healthy biological cycle in aquariums.
For a new fresh aquarium, you can directly put this substrate in your tank, fill water slowly, and then start filters and pumps. For an existing tank, don’t put all the substrate at a time, mix it step by step for a week.
Volcanic soils can provide an ideal condition for plant growth as they contain many useful minerals for plants. Fluval Plant and Shrimp Stratum is the collection of soils from mineral-rich foothills of the Mount Aso Volcano in Japan. So natural ingredients that can promote plant growth are perfectly present in this substrate.
Aquatic plants root easily and spread healthily throughout this substrate, which supplies all nutrients necessary for plants to flourish. This substrate ensures a full complement of essential macro and micronutrients for the growth of plants.
The non-compacting porous structure of the substrate can make an ideal home for beneficial bacteria, thus establish a healthy biological cycle in your tank, providing optimal water quality.
This substrate will not cause any discoloration of water; rather, it helps control organic discoloration from natural driftwood aquarium décors.
This product is new in the market and so far so good in reputation. Active-Flora planted substrate is entirely natural and does not contain any harmful chemicals and dyes to alter the water quality. It helps to maintain the pH in an ideal condition for fish and plants.
Spherical grains are good for diffusion and promote beneficial bacteria. This substrate contains bio-active nutrients for faster plant growth. The users who used this product as an aquarium substrate found satisfactory results.
The manufacturer claims ActivFlora gravels are naturally abundant in trace elements to provide an agile, nutrient-rich environment in which aquarium plants thrive.
This one is another product from the Active-Flora. This substrate is a colorful gravels, suitable for a planted aquarium. They use non-toxic colorful pigments and don’t use any artificial dyes or additives. So there is no chance for an alteration of the water quality and pH.
Spherical grains can promote maximum diffusion. This substrate contains bio-active nutrients for faster plant growth. The users who used this product as an aquarium substrate found satisfactory results.
Like all other products of this brand, the manufacturer claims ActivFlora Floracor is naturally abundant in trace elements to provide a quick nutrient-rich environment, in which aquarium plants will thrive and achieve optimum health and growth.
Amazonia Light substrate is beginner-friendly; if you are a first-timer and planning to start a planted aquarium, this product will be suitable for you. Is it the best substrate for planted tanks to start with?
They use Japanese plant-based black soil as ingredients that promote a favorable condition for most common aquatic plants. This substrate keeps the aquarium water mildly acidic, and this condition is suitable for most aquatic plants and tropical fish. (But if you keep species like Cichlid, an acidic condition is not ideal for them, they prefer alkaline water.)
This product does not contain any harmful dyes, and with its earth color, it can create a natural-looking aquascape. This product is useable in nano aquariums because it has a smaller grain size allowing a greater sense of scale.
The Tropica Planted Aquarium Soil contains natural volcanic granulate material of Japan. If you use this soil as your aquarium substrate, it is sufficient to make a complete bottom layer, and nothing additional is required.
This substrate will ensure a healthy environment for aquatic species, ensuring the active growth of the plants. It can boost the red plant shades to simulate red color.
One thing while using this aquarium soil you should keep in mind, it can reduce the pH of the aquarium water. As per manufacturer recommendation, change 25-50 percent of the water minimum twice a week for the first month.
The primary maintenance of the aquarium substrate is to clean it regularly. Eventually, this one is the leading maintenance task of your aquarium cleaning. Cleaning of the aquarium substrate is a little tricky, but not that tough, just follow a step by step right procedure.
Don’t forget to switch off and unplug all electric devices before handling water, and it is for your safety reason. Also, you might need to remove electrical appliances like heater, filter, etc. from your aquarium to ease your cleaning job.
Siphon out the water from your fish tank. If you have a small or nano tank, you can remove water manually or use a vacuum absorber for a large tank. This step is required to get rid of debris settled on the substrate layer. Never remove all the water, always keep 10-20% in the tank. If you remove all, you will lose existing beneficial bacteria.
Use a gravel vacuum to clean the substrate. Stir up the gravel and suck up the debris for better cleaning. If you use sand rather than gravel, you will definitely want to know how to clean aquarium sand. The cleaning process is almost the same for a sand substrate!
Now add water to the tank, one thing to keep in your mind while replacing the water is maintaining the water’s pH. The water test kit will help you to analyze the same, and based on that, you can go for freshwater or saltwater.
We hope this article will be helpful to you. It is not easy to find a perfect substrate for your aquarium, especially when you are looking for the best substrate for planted tanks. All the products we included our list got good customer feedback. We hope your searching process will be more comfortable with this list.
Choose a substrate that you think will help flourish the kind of plants you prefer to keep, and at the same time, suits your aesthetic preference. You can let us know if you have any queries or suggestions for us.
Hello, everyone! Welcome to my aquarium blog. Fishkeeping is my passion, and I started this fascinating hobby back in 2006. Besides my engineering profession, I deeply studied many fishkeeping topics since I started building my home aquarium. I researched effective aquarium filtration and lighting of planted aquariums. I am keeping 20+ species of freshwater and saltwater fish as my aquatic pet collection. I successfully experimented with a complex ecosystem inside the aquarium, biotope aquariums, aquaponics, etc. I would love to share some learnings from my hands-on experience of the last 14 years. Hopefully, my sharing will be somewhat helpful to make your aquarium journey awesome!
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